α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are receptors in most excitatory central synapses between neurons. The change of peak ratio of AMPA-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) to NMDA-mediated EPSCs reflects a glutamatergic synapse plastic alteration.
Fig. 1 Molecular basis of long-term potentiation (LTP)
This ratio is set and controlled by factors not well understood but it can be escalated by stress and exposure to addictive drugs. Essentially this ratio determines the computational language expressed in neural circuitry that affects memory storage and some reward center functions like addiction and stress. The ratio of these two receptors have a dominant influence of not only the current but the flow of calcium and potassium. All the ways that this ratio manners the flow of current into the cell which influence the output of current from the cell's sodium pump. Abnormal ratios of these receptors are also implicated in schizophrenia.
To evaluate the basic neuronal acitivity and neurotransmission functions, Acroscell offers the measurement of NMDA/AMPA ratio analysis tests on brain slices.
Fig. 2 NMDA/AMPA ratio was altered in hippocampal neurons of mice administered SL327 at P6.
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